CcTLD

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国家代码顶级域名ccTLD)是两个字母的互联网顶级域名(TLD)专门指定给一个特定的国家,主权联邦或自治领土用于以服务此社区。国家代码顶级域是从ISO 3166-1 alpha-2国家代码演变来的。[1]

实施[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

ccTLD的实施是由IANA启动。 ccTLD的授权和创建呈现在RFC 1591中。 为了确定新ccTLD是否应添加与否,IANA遵循ISO 3166的规定 - 维护机构。涉及到新ccTLD发展的更多信息,请参考IANA的ccTLD的设立程序[2]

IANA中对ccTLD的程序[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

在它的数据库里,IANA包含与ccTLD相关的权威信息,包括发起组织,技术和管理联系人,名称服务器,注册的网址以及其他类似的信息。这种类型的信息提供了有关IANA维护国家代码顶级域名数据库中的程序的附加细节。

授权和重新授权[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

改变指定管理者的流程被称为重新授权。过程遵循ICP-1和RFC 1591 的规定。首先IANA收到国家代码顶级域名赞助组织的关于授权和重新授权的请求。然后,IANA基于各种技术和公共规范分析这些请求,最后这些请求被送到ICANN董事会批准或拒绝。如果获得批准,IANA还负责请求的执行。[3]

从概念上讲,授权和重新授权的过程很简单,但如果有很多组织和个人参与此过程中,情况很容易变得复杂。在发送授权或重新授权请求之前有一组步骤必须要执行。初始请求应根据更改请求模板来制定并且在初始请求中必须提供补充信息,证明已经符合资格标准。所提供的所有信息会被IANA用来强化接收到的请求。[3]

ccTLD和ICANN[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

ICANN制定的政策会由通用顶级域名注册商,ccTLD管理者,根域名服务器运营商和区域性互联网注册机构执行。其中ICANN的主要活动之一是与参与互联网技术协调的其他组织一起正式记录他们在ICANN进程中的参与作用。这些组织都致力于从他们的工作产生的ICANN政策。

从2000年开始,ICANN开始与ccTLD管理机构合作记录他们的关系。由于各种情况,如:组织的类型,文化问题,经济类型,法律环境等,ICANN和ccTLD管理者之间的关系通常是复杂的。另一个要考虑的是国家政府在“管理或建立自己的国家代码顶级域名政策中扮演的角色”(角色在1998年六月发布的美国政府白皮书被认定)。[4]

2009年,ICANN开始了IDN ccTLD快速通道流程的执行,,[5] 因此使用非拉丁文字的国家能够用母语申请国家代码顶级域和对应的拉丁版本。截至2011年初,已收到代表22种语言的33个请求,.[6] 半数以上已得到批准。[7]

开放性国家代码顶级域[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

开放的国家代码顶级域名是指任何人不管他/她是居住在哪个国家的都可以注册的国家代码顶级域名。这些国家代码顶级域一般不仅代表的一个国家或地区而且也代表了一个特定的品牌。例子包括.CC(科科斯群岛)也代表咨询公司,.tv (图瓦卢)代表电视,.WS(西萨摩亚)代表网站,.CO(哥伦比亚)作为替代.COM的公司。[8]

.CC和.TV[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

威瑞信(VeriSign)既是.CC也是.TV开放ccTLD的注册运营商。 eNIC,威瑞信的子公司,管理.CC的运营和营销。该公司把国家代码顶级域名.cc做为.com和.net域名空间的一个很好的替代品来推广。.cc的目标用户包括想要开发的网站代表一家中国企业,乡村俱乐部,咨询公司,聊天社区,教会团体,社区活动中心,商会,或社区学院的实体。[9]

TodayISP.com,提供.cc的注册商之一,描述了国家代码顶级域名.CC作为具有.com.net的相同的功能,因为它可以被用户理解为商业公司的缩写新的国际域名,它提供了潜在的商业价值,正在成为域名最新的时尚,使得其价值增加。[10]

.tv的ccTLD目前由dotTV - 威瑞信的另一附属公司经营。使用.tv域名由参与电视,电影机构和动画行业,以及在他们的博客或网站提供视频内容的个人所注册。[11] 网民明白,一个.tv域名提供视频内容。 2006年,Demand Media公司和Verisign合作,推动.tv TLD作为媒体丰富的内容首选的网站地址。理查德·罗森布拉特,Demand Media公司的董事长和首席执行官,解释说,网络媒体的格局正在快速变化,许多用户希望发布和分享自己的视频资料。据罗森布拉特,“通过注册.tv域名并添加自己选择的视频内容,用户可以编写自己的渠道。”[12]

.CO[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

哥伦比亚信息技术和通信部把co ccTLD注册局的管理分配给.CO Internet SAS - Arcelandia SA和NeuStar公司之间的合资企业,域名自2010年2月推出以来,.co已经由.CO Internet公司市场定位为“新的,灵活,安全的全球扩展”推广给全球互联网用户。[13]

据.co互联网公司首席执行官Juan Diego Calle说,.CO顶级域名将成为正在寻找价格合理,实现他们的网上成功的关键提供一个可信的,全球性和可识别的域名的用户一个很好的选择。他解释说,.CO域名被世界范围的互联网用户广泛地作为企业或公司的缩写, .CO域名空间将给数百万用户提供注册自己想要的域名,建立他们的在线辨识的机会。卡莱说,他的公司正在瞄准世界各地的拥有的梦想,想法和内容分享的互联网用户。[14]

.co互联网SAS正在推动.co顶级域名作为一个代表公司,企业,社区,内容等容易记忆的顶级域名,并且是可以和成长的社区联网的,易搜索的,安全的,具有承诺性的,自信的,灵活的域名。[15] [16]

有些公司利用.CO域名空间作为品牌缩短服务或域名分割,如Overstock.com(O.co),推特(T.co),政客(politi.co),创业黑客(vh.co) ,谷歌(g.co)等[17] 其他人使用它作为一个URL缩短服务,如GoDaddy的x.co.

.fm和.am[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

.fm和.am国家代码顶级域由BRS媒体公司市场推广为音乐,广播和社交媒体网站所使用。.fm注册的收入的一定百分比返回到了政府和密克罗尼西亚联邦的人民。[18].am也已经在域名黑客 instagr.am使用。[19]

.ws[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

.ws国家代码顶级域名由SamoaNIC管理和运行[20] ,它被推广为网站或世界网站的缩写形式。[21]它的营销策略是为用户提供全球性的辨识度。.ws的营销计划是由全球域名国际公司来运做的。[22]

.me[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

黑山的国家代码顶级域名,.me,由DoMEn公司市场定位为博客,社交媒体用户,和社会上倾斜网站和公司所使用。[23]

现存的国家代码顶级域[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

以下是现存的国家代码顶级域包括其營運商和有關註冊的特別備註.[24][25]

ccTLDEntityRegistry OperatorNotes
.acAscension IslandNic.ac
.adAndorraAndorra Telecom
.aeUnited Arab EmiratesUAEnic
.afAfghanistanAfgNIC
.agAntigua and BarbudaNic AG
.aiAnguillaGovernment of Anguilla
.alAlbaniaAlbania Electronic and Postal Communications Authority (AKEP)
.amArmeniaISOC.AM (Armenian Branch of ISOC)
.anAntilles (Netherlands)University of the Netherlands AntillesBeing phased out
.aoAngolaFaculdade de Engenharia da Universidade Agostinho Neto
.aqAntarcticaMott and AssociatesAvailable to government organizations who are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty, and other registrants with a local physical presence.
.arArgentinaNIC Argentina
.asAmerican SamoaAS Domain Registry
.atAustriaNic.at
.auAustraliaauDAABN (Australian Business Number) required
.awArubaSETARRestricted to local companies, organizations, and citizens
.axAland IslandsÅlands Landskapsregeringen
.azAzerbaijanIntraNS
.baBosnia and HerzegovinaUTIC
.bbBarbadosGovernment of Barbados Ministry of Economic Affairs and Development Telecommunications Unit
.bdBangladeshMinistry of Post & Telecommunications Bangladesh Secretariat
.beBelgiumDNS BelgiumAlso unofficially used in Berne, Switzerland
.bfBurkina FasoARCE
.bgBulgariaRegister.BG
.bhBahrainBATELCO
.biBurundiBurundi National Center of Information Technology
.bjBeninOffices des Postes et Telecommunications
.blSaint BarthelemyUnassignedCurrently not in root zone
.bmBermudaRegistry General Ministry of Labour and ImmigrationLocal corporate registration required
.bnBrunei DarussalamJabatan Telekom Brunei
.boBoliviaAgencia para el Desarrollo de la Información de la Sociedad en Bolivia
.bqBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaUnassignedCurrently not in root zone
.brBrazilNIC.brTop level registration is restricted, registration at second level
.bsBahamasThe College of the Bahamas
.btBhutanMinistry of Information and Communications
.bvBouvet IslandUNINETT Norid ASNot in use
.bwBotswanaBotswana Telecommunications Corporation
.byBelarusOpen Contact Ltd.
.bzBelizeUniversity of Belize
.caCanadaCIRASubject to Canadian Presence Requirements
.ccCocos (Keeling) IslandseNIC Cocos Islands Pty. Ltd.Second level domains used in free, public domain service
.cdDemocratic Republic of the CongoCDNIC
.cfCentral African RepublicDot CF
.cgRepublic of CongoONPT Congo and Interpoint Switzerland
.chSwitzerlandSWITCH
.ciCote d'IvoireINP-HB
.ckCook IslandsTelecom Cook Islands Ltd.
.clChileNIC ChileLocal presence required
.cmCameroonCAMTELRestricted to local entities/companies
.cnChinaCNNICRegistration allowed worldwide
.coColombia.co Internet
.crCosta RicaAcademia Nacional de Ciencias
.cuCubaCENIA
.cvCape VerdeANAC
.cwCuraçaoUniversity of the Netherlands Antilles
.cxChristmas IslandChristmas Island Internet Administration Ltd.
.cyCyprusUniversity of Cyprus
.czCzech RepublicCZ.NIC
.deGermanyDENICGerman postal address required for administrative contact
.djDjiboutiDjibouti Telecom SA
.dkDenmarkDK Hostmaster
.dmDominicaDotDM Corporation
.doDominican RepublicPontificia Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra Recinto Santo Tomas de Aquino
.dzAlgeriaNIC.dz
.ecEcuadorNIC.EC
.eeEstoniaEstonian Internet FoundationEstonian postal address required for administrative contact
.egEgyptEUN Supreme Council of Universities
.ehWestern SaharaUnassignedCurrently not in root zone
.erEritreaEriTel
.esSpainRED.ES
.etEthiopiaEthiopian Telecommunications Corporation
.euEuropean UnionEURidRestricted to institutions, companies, and individuals within the European Union
.fiFinlandFICORALimited to Finnish companies and citizens, abroad or domestic
.fjFijiThe University of the South Pacific IT Services
.fkFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Falkland Islands Government
.fmFederated States of MicronesiaFSM Telecommunications Corporation
.foFaroe IslandsFO Council
.frFranceAFNICFrench presence required
.gaGabonGabon Telecom
.gbUnited KingdomUnassigned, reserved domainOriginally meant to replace .uk
.gdGrenadaNTRC
.geGeorgiaCaucasus Online
.gfFrench GuianaNet Plus
.ggGuernseyIsland Networks
.ghGhanaNetwork Computer Systems
.giGibraltarSapphire Networks
.glGreenlandTELE Greenland AS
.gmGambiaGM-NIC
.gnGuineaCentre National des Sciences Halieutiques de Boussoura
.gpGuadeloupeNetworking Technologies Group
.gqEquatorial GuineaGETESA
.grGreeceGR-Hostmaster
.gsSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsGSGSSI
.gtGuatemalaUniversidad del Valle de Guatemala
.guGuamUniversity of Guam Computer Center
.gwGuinea-BissauARN
.gyGuyanaUniversity of Guyana
.hkHong KongHong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Ltd.
.hmHeard Island and McDonald IslandsHM Domain Registry
.hnHondurasRed de Desarrollo Sostenible Honduras
.hrCroatiaCARNet
.htHaitiConsortium FDS/RDDH
.huHungaryCHIP
.idIndonesiaIDNIC-PPAU Mikroelektronika
.ieIrelandIE Domain Registry LimitedLimited to Irish citizens, Ireland-registered brands and companies, and companies doing business in Ireland
.ilIsraelISOC-IL (Israeli Branch of ISOC)
.imIsle of ManIsle of Man Government
.inIndiaNIXI
.ioBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryIO Top Level Domain Registry Cable and Wireless
.iqIraqCMC
.irIslamic Republic of IranIRNIC
.isIcelandISNIC
.itItalyIIT - CNRRestricted to companies and individuals within the EU
.jeJerseyIsland Networks
.jmJamaicaUniversity of West Indies
.joJordanNITC
.jpJapanJapan Registry ServicesPhysical address within Japan required
.keKenyaKENIC
.kgKyrgyzstanAsiaInfo Telecommunications Enterprise
.khCambodiaCambodia Ministry of Post and Telecommunications
.kiKiribatiMinistry of Communications, Transport, and Tourism Development
.kmComorosComores Telecom
.knSaint Kitts and NevisMinistry of Finance, Sustainable Development Information & Technology
.kpDemocratic People's Republic of KoreaStar Joint Venture Company
.kpRepublic of KoreaKISA
.kwKuwaitMinistry of Communications
.kyCaymen IslandsThe Information and Communication AuthorityRestricted to qualified Cayman entities
.kzKazakhstanAssociation of IT Companies of Kazakhstan
.laLaosLANICCurrently marketed as an unofficial domain for Los Angeles
.lbLebanonAmerican University of Beirut Computing and Networking Services Restricted to companies within Lebanon
.lcSaint LuciaUniversity of Puerto Rico
.liLiechtensteinUniversitaet Liechtenstein
.lkSri LankaCouncil for Information Technology and LK Domain Registrar
.lrLiberiaData Technology Solutions, Inc.
.lsLesothoNational University of Lesotho
.ltLithuaniaDomreg
.luLuxembourgRESTENA
.lvLatviaNIC.LV
.lyLibyaGeneral Post and Telecommunications Company
.maMoroccoANRT
.mcMonacoGouvernement de Monaco Direction des Communications Electroniques
.mdRepublic of MoldovaMoldDataMarketed to medical professionals worldwide
.meMontenegrodoMEn
.mfSaint MartinUnassignedCurrently not in root zone
.mgMadagascarNIC-MG
.mhMarshall IslandsCabinet Office
.mkMacedoniaMinistry of Foreign RelationsRestricted to companies within Macedonia
.mlMaliSotelma
.mmMyanmarMinistry of Communications, Posts & Telegraphs
.mnMongoliaDatacom Co., Ltd.
.moMacaoUniversity of Macau
.mpNorthern Mariana IslandsSaipan Datacom
.mqMartiniqueSYSTEL
.mrMauritaniaUniversity of Nouakchott
.msMontserratMNI Networks Ltd.
.mtMaltaNIC Malta
.muMauritiusMauritius Network Information Centre
.mvMaldivesDHIVEHINET
.mwMalawiMalawi SDNP
.mxMexicoNIC Mexico
.myMalaysiaMYNICRestricted to individuals and companies within Malaysia
.mzMozambiqueCentro de Informatica de Universidade Eduardo Mondlane
.naNamibiaNamibian Network Information Centre
.ncNew CaledoniaOffice des Postes et Telecommunications
.neNigerSONITEL
.nfNorfolk IslandNorfolk Island Data Services
.ngNigeriaNiRA
.niNicaraguaUniversidad Nacional del Ingernieria Centro de Computo
.nlNetherlandsStichting Internet Domeinregistratie Nederland (SIDN)Was the first official ccTLD to be assigned
.noNorwayUNINETT Norid ASRestricted to companies in Norway. Individuals may register under the SLD .priv.no.
.npNepalMercantile Communications
.nrNauruCENPAC NETSecond level domain .co.nr is used as a free domain service
.nuNiueInternetstiftelsen i SverigeUnofficially used as "new" for English language websites and "now" for Danish, Dutch, and Swedish websites.
.nzNew ZealandInternetNZ
.omOmanTRA
.paPanamaUniversidad Tecnologica de Panama
.pePeruRed Cientifica Peruana
.pfFrench PolynesiaMinistère des Postes et Télécommunications
.pgPapua New GuineaPNG DNS Administration
.phPhilippinesPH Domain Foundation
.pkPakistanPKNIC
.plPolandNASK
.pmSaint Pierre and MiquelonAFNIC
.pnPitcairnPitcairn Island Administration
.prPuerto RicoGauss Research Laboratory Inc (GRL-INC)
.psPalestinePalestinian National Internet Naming Authority (PNINA)
.ptPortugalDNS.PT
.pwPalauMicronesia Investment and Development Corporation
.pyParaguayNIC-PY
.qaQatarictQATAR
.reReunionAFNICRestricted to brand owners in Reunion and to companies with an address in Reunion.
.roRomaniaRomanian Research Network
.rsSerbiaSerbian National Register of Internet Domain Names (RNIDS)
.ruRussiaCoordination Center for TLD RU
.rwRwandaNIC Congo
.saSaudi ArabiaCommunications and Information Technology
.sbSolomon IslandsSolomon Telekom Company
.scSeychellesVCS
.sdSudanSudan Internet Society
.seSwedenInternetstiftelsen i Sverige
.sgSingaporeSGNIC
.shSaint HelenaGovernment of St. Helena
.siSloveniaARNES
.sjSvalbard and Jan MayenUNINETT Norid ASNot in use
.skSlovakiaSK-NICRestricted to Slovakian companies, organizations, and citizens
.slSierra LeoneSierratel
.smSan MarinoTelecom Italia San MarinoDomain name must be same as company name or trademark
.snSenegalUniversite Cheikh Anta Diop
.soSomaliaSomali Ministry of Posts and CommunicationsRelaunched on Novemner 1, 2010
.srSurinameTelesur
.ssSouth SudanUnassignedCurrently not in root zone
.stSao Tome and PrincipeTecnisys
.suSoviet UnionROSNIIROSBeing phased out in favor of .ru
.svEl SalvadorSVNet
.sxSint MaartenSX Registry
.sySyriaNANS
.szSwazilandSISPA
.tcTurks and Caicos IslandsMelrexTC
.tdChadSotel TchadRestricted to entities connected with Chad
.tfFrench Southern TerritoriesAFNIC
.tgTogoC.A.F.E. Informatique et Telecommunications
.thThailandTHNIC
.tjTajikistanInformation Technology Center
.tkTokelauTeletokUsed as a free public domain service
.tlTimor-LesteMinistry Infrastructure Information and Technology Division Old code, .tp, still also in use
.tmTurkmenistanTM Domain Registry
.tnTunisiaTunisia Telecommunications Agency ATI
.toTongaGovernment of the Kingdom of TongaUnofficially used for torrent, Toronto, and Tokyo
.tpPortuguese TimorUnassignedBeing phased out in favor of .tl
.trTurkeyNIC.TR.nc.tr used by Northern Cyprus
.ttTrinidad and TobagoUniversity of the West Indies Faculty of Engineering
.tvTuvaluMinistry of Finance and TourismUsed as a abbreviation for television
.twTaiwanTWNICRegistration allowed worldwide
.tzTanzaniaTzNICPresence within Tanzania required
.uaUkraineHostmaster LTD
.ugUgandaCharles Musisi
.ukUnited KingdomNominetUK service address required
.umUnited States Minor Outlying IslandsUnassignedCurrently not in root zone
.usUnited StatesNeuStarCommonly used by US state and local governments instead of .gov
.uyUruguaySeCIU
.uzUzbekistanUZINFOCOM
.vaVatican CityInternet Office of the Holy SeeLimited to officials sites of the Vatican/Holy See
.vcSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesMinistry of Telecommunications, Science, Technology and Industry
.veVenezuelaCONATEL
.vgBritish Virgin IslandsPinebrook Developments Ltd.
.viUS Virgin IslandsNIC.vi
.vnVietnamVNNIC
.vuVanuatuTelecom Vanuatu Ltd.
.wfWallis and FutunaAFNIC
.wsSamoaGovernment of Samoa Ministry of Foreign Affairs
.ytMayoteAFNIC
.zaSouth AfricaZADNA
.zmZambiaZAMNET
.zwZimbabweZISPA

參考[编辑 | 编辑源代码]